Application and Development of Feed Enzymes

Application of Feed Enzymes

What are enzymes? Enzymes are additives and also active proteins. We can use a very small amount of enzyme preparation to release more nutrients, so the feed industry is a low carbon and green industry. Of course, we have higher expectations for enzymes, which can promote animal digestion, improve feed utilization and increase economic benefits. Enzyme preparations are ubiquitous in our lives, from food to brewing to petroleum, and various industries use enzyme preparations. Among them, the quantity of feed enzymes is relatively large.

In poultry feed enzymes, phytase enzyme is the first major single-enzyme feed preparation, and can reduce the addition of calcium dihydrogen phosphate from 20kg/t to 5-10kg/t. If other feed ingredients are properly matched, it is possible to not add extra calcium dihydrogen phosphate and only add phytase enzyme. Therefore, phytase enzyme has high environmental and economic value, and has made great contributions to the feed industry. Enzymes are proteins with catalytic reaction ability. In addition, recent research has shown that some nucleic acids can also have the same catalytic effect as enzymes. Currently, the scope of enzyme preparation definition is wider than before.

Enzymes are active substances, and their reactions require specific conditions. The reaction conditions of feed enzyme preparations and industrial enzyme preparations are also different. For example, the enzyme for starch is mainly divided into high-temperature starch enzymes, medium-temperature starch enzymes, and low-temperature starch enzymes. The working temperature of high-temperature starch enzymes is 90-110℃, the suitable working temperature of medium-temperature starch enzymes is 50-60℃, and the most suitable one in feed is low-temperature starch enzymes, with high activity at around 40℃. Currently, Yinong produces this kind of low-temperature starch enzyme. Before that, the basic application in feed was medium-temperature starch enzymes, and the effect was also limited.

Enzyme preparations must have several static indicators to maintain a certain enzyme activity

The most suitable temperature. Livestock and poultry are generally warm-blooded animals, and their body temperature is basically between 37-40℃. Aquatic animals are poikilothermic animals, and their body temperature is basically the same as the temperature of the water, with great differences in body temperature during different seasons. Therefore, aquatic poultry feed enzymes preparations need to have two basic conditions. Firstly, they should have high enzyme activity at low temperatures. Secondly, they should maintain a certain stability during feed processing.

The most suitable pH. The pH range is also one of the important criteria for evaluating enzyme preparations. The pH of different parts of the animal digestive tract is different. The pH of the mouth is about 6.5-7.0, and the pH in the stomach is about 2.5-6.5. After entering the small intestine, after being treated by pancreatic juice, the pH rises to around 6.5-7.0. In the cecum, the pH is about 7.0 due to the action of microorganisms. If the enzyme preparations can only work at a certain pH, then they cannot play a better auxiliary role in the entire process of animal digestion.

Substrate concentration. The reaction of enzyme preparations has specificity. Phytase enzyme only acts on phytic acid, protease only acts on protein, and each enzyme is targeted. Only when the substrate exists, the enzyme preparation can play a corresponding role.

Development Trend of Feed Enzyme Preparations

Adult animals have a short growth cycle and a large food intake, and internal enzyme addition should be strengthened. The traditional corn-soybean meal diet is called "the golden diet", but the latest research results indicate that this diet also has some deficiencies, such as resistant starch, which animals cannot digest directly; the utilization rate of starch in fattening pigs is only 85%. There are significant differences in the metabolism of corn with different origins and growth conditions. After adding non-starch polysaccharide enzymes, the differences are reduced by 50%. Reducing intestinal viscosity can eliminate anti-nutrients using poultry feed enzymes, and combining enzyme technology with fermentation and other technologies can better reduce energy consumption and improve feed utilization.

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