Cellulase is a complex enzyme, which is generally considered to contain at least three components, namely C1 enzyme, CX enzyme and glucosidase. C1 enzyme and CX enzyme decompose cellulose into cellobiose, and glucosidase decomposes cellobiose into glucose. Under the combined action of these three components, cellulose is hydrolyzed into glucose, thereby providing nutrients for the growth of microorganism. Surely, it can also be used by humans.
As a highly active biocatalyst, cellulase not only hydrolyzes cellulose but also plays an important role in other aspects. Cellulase can activate the secretion of endogenous enzymes to supplement the deficiency of microbial cellulase in the body for herbivores. At the same time, it can also improve the effect of other enzymes such as amylase and pectinase, and synergistically improve the digestibility of cellulosic food. Cellulase can also eliminate anti-nutritional factors, reduce the viscosity caused by the dissolution of some sugars in water, and ensure the health of the organism. In addition, cellulase also has the function of maintaining the integrity of the small intestine villi and promoting the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.
Cellulase is widely present in organisms in nature. Insects, bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and other organisms can produce cellulase. At present, cellulase is used by humans with its own advantages and has various development applications in the fields of food and wine making.
In food production, cellulase is often used in the extraction of vegetable juice, olive oil, and the clarification of fruit juices. Since the main components of plant cell walls are pectin, cellulose and other substances, the use of cellulase is conducive to the exudation of plant cell contents, so as to improve the extraction efficiency of starch, protein, fat and other substances in the cell, reduce the pressing time, and simplify the process. Adding cellulase during wine making can shorten the fermentation time, improve the utilization of raw materials, reduce the viscosity of the solution, and make the wine taste more mellow, and the content of fusel oil is also lower.
In addition, cellulase is of great significance to environmental protection. In the process of producing environmentally friendly fuel ethanol, cellulase plays an irreplaceable role. At present, the raw material for fuel ethanol production in my country is corn stalks, and corn stalks are transformed with the participation of cellulase.
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