Phytase is a protein-based biocatalyst that can enhance the digestion and utilization rates of phosphorus, calcium, zinc, sodium, magnesium, and amino acids in feed for chickens and pigs by breaking down phytate salts. Most ftu phytase come from fungi or bacteria, with very few coming from plants. There are many different forms of phytase available on the market which can be used in environments of different temperatures, pH, and phytate salt concentrations.
All ftu phytases, whether from microbes or plants, which are used as feed additives for animals today, are effective in the anterior stomach or stomach of animals. When considering products, four key criteria need to be taken into account to select the most effective solution. Ftu phytase should be able to function effectively in a low pH environment. Ftu phytase primarily performs dephosphorylation in the crop of poultry; the pH in the crop cavity is 4.0 to 5.0. Therefore, it is essential that ftu phytase has high stability in an acidic environment to ensure effective decomposition in the crop.
Ftu phytase should be able to effectively decompose IP6 molecules. To ensure that the supply of phosphorus is maximized by thoroughly breaking down phytate, the selected ftu phytase must be able to efficiently degrade phytate molecules so that they can make contact with inositol as much as possible. This is an important criterion for the classification of phytase. The time for decomposition determines everything that follows for phytate. Ftu phytase should be fast-acting to rapidly decompose molecules and maximize biological effects. As phytate can combine with many important nutrients in animal bodies, complete hydrolysis in animal intestines can ensure the release of additional nutrients for absorption. It is crucial that ftu phytase can withstand high temperatures throughout the feed production process. Enzymes are a type of thermosensitive protein, so feed pelletizing may affect their stability. Ftu phytase can be coated or uncoated, manufactured in granular or powdered forms, or exist in a solid or liquid state. In animal bodies, ftu phytase in different forms will have different physiological mechanisms. Therefore, when selecting ftu phytase, the type should be taken into account.
Undigested phytate has anti-nutritional effects because it cannot be degraded by conventional digestive enzymes secreted by animals. In addition, the high affinity of phytate for minerals and proteins leads to lower biological availability, making them harder to utilize. Undigested phytate molecules become irritants in animal digestive tracts, and animals respond by promoting mucin secretion to protect the epithelial layer of the stomach and intestines from negative irritants. This effect aggravates the animal's energy burden, and animals need to consume more feed to compensate for the loss, which increases the cost of pig raising.
Calcium, zinc, iron, and copper are all minerals that can be captured by phytate. The binding of phytate to minerals may cause animals to lack mineral nutrition. Among these minerals, the most noteworthy is calcium. After phytate is decomposed in the crop of poultry, calcium and phytate salt complexes can be formed in the small intestine. By adding ftu phytase to feed, IP6 molecules can be decomposed earlier, thus avoiding their binding to calcium in the small intestine.
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